Download PDF by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements: A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures NCRP

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

ISBN-10: 0913392715

ISBN-13: 9780913392713

The name of this publication is A instruction manual of Radioactivity Measurements systems: With Nuclear information for a few Biologically very important Radionuclides : concepts of the nationwide Council on Radiation safety and Measurements and it used to be written by way of nationwide Council on Radiation safeguard and Measurements, nationwide Committee on Radiation defense and Measurements (U.S.). This version of A guide of Radioactivity Measurements tactics: With Nuclear information for a few Biologically very important Radionuclides : concepts of the nationwide Council on Radiation security and Measurements is in a publication structure. This books post date is January 1, 1978. It was once released by means of NCRP and has 506 pages within the e-book. the ten digit ISBN is 0913392413 and the thirteen digit ISBN is 9780913392416

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5). Here the geometrical efficiency is unity, and all corrections for scattering and absorption outside the source are eliminated. For very thin, or "mass-less," sources of alpha or beta particles of not too low an energy, practically 100-percent detection efficiency can be achieved in the case of 47r gas proportional counters. 8) are also forms of 4 r counting in which the total detection efficiency closely approaches 100 percent. One of the oldest methods of direct standardization of activity is that of defined-solid-angle counting where the defined solid angle is 17r steradians or less.

Element of Known Isotopic Abundance. Historically, weighing is the oldest method of radioactivity standardization, having first been applied in the case of radium in 1911. This radium, which was used to determine the atomic weight of radium-226, was considered to be isotopically pure. Weighing, or its equivalent, such as measuring the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas, may also be used to determine the activities of other radioactive nuclides, provided that the isotopic abundance of the radionuclide in question and its decay constant are known.

Under usual conditions, electrons drift at speeds of the order of lo6 cm s-'. The drift velocity of ions is many orders of magnitude less. Collisions with gas molecules prevent the ions from attaining high velocities. i,, the average energy expended in the creation of an ion pair in air, are shown in Table 2. As can be seen, this quantity does not depend markedly on the energy, and is approximately the same for electrons and alpha particles, when measured in the same gas (see also Valentine and Curran, 1958; Klots, 1968; and ICRU, 1979a).

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A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures NCRP Reports 58 by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements


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