By David Johns Ken Martin
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Extra info for Analog Integrated Circuit Design
061 mA/V Note that this source-bulk transconductance value is about 1/6 that of the gatesource transconductance. 3 _1 -6 ; 143 kQ 10 . 6, which is the largest voltage gain this single transistor can achieve for these operating bias conditions. 6 is much smaller than the corresponding single-transistor gain in a bipolar transistor. 4 x 10' xTLl ; 170 kQ ~A An alternate low-frequency model, known as a T model, is shown in Fig. 19. This T model can often result in simpler equations and is most often used by experienced designers for a quick analysis.
The constant I oo might be around 20 nA. 42 Chapter 1 • Integrated-Circuit Devices and Modelling Although the transistors have an exponential relationship in this region, the transconductances are still small because of the small bias currents, and the transistors are slow because of small currents for charging and discharging capacitors. In addition, matching between transistors suffers because it now strongly depends on transistorthreshold-voltage matching. Normally, transistors are not operated in the subthreshold region, except in very low-frequency and low-power applications.
28 Various components of the currents of an npn transistor. 4 Bipolar-Junction Transistors 45 words, if the transistor is not cut off and the collector-base junction is reverse biased, a small base current controls a much larger collector-emitter current. A simplified overview of how an npn transistor operates follows: When the baseemitter junction becomes forward biased, it starts to conduct, similar to any forwardbiased junction. The current consists of majority carriers from the base (in this case, holes) and majority carriers from the emitter (in this case, electrons) diffusing across the junction.
Analog Integrated Circuit Design by David Johns Ken Martin